EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTIOXIDANT INTAKE IN BREAST CANCER PATIENTS PROGRESSION INHIBIT AT PROF. DR. R.D. KANDOU MANADO
World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that non-communicable diseases account for 56% of all deaths and 44% of the disease burden on the countries in Southeast Asia. In Indonesia, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death. The main risk factors that lead to the occurrence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are hypertension, high blood glucose, obesity and abnormal blood fats. Risky behavior affects the risk factors, among others, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity (Balitbangkes, 2008).
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In 2012, about 8.2 million deaths caused by cancer. Lung cancer, liver, stomach, colorectal, and breast cancer is the biggest cause of cancer deaths each year. More than 30% of cancer deaths are caused by five factors of risk behaviors and eating patterns, namely: (1) The body mass index is high, (2) less consumption of fruits and vegetables, (3) Less physical activity, (4) The use of cigarettes, and (5) excessive alcohol consumption. Smoking is a major risk factor for cancer that causes more than 20% of cancer deaths in the world and about 70% of lung cancer deaths worldwide. Cancers that cause viral infections such as hepatitis B virus / hepatitis C and human papilloma virus contributes to 20% of cancer deaths in low- and middle-income countries. More than 60% of new cases and approximately 70% of cancer deaths in the world each year occur in Africa, Asia and Central and South America. It is estimated that the annual cancer cases will increase from 14 million in 2012 to 22 million in the next two decades (Balitbangkes, 2013).
More than 30% of cancer can be prevented by changing behavioral risk factors and dietary causes of cancer. A known cancer early are likely to get better handling. Therefore, prevention efforts should be made to raise public awareness in recognizing the symptoms and the risk of cancer in order to determine the measures of prevention and early detection of the right (Balitbangkes, 2013).
Results Health Research Board of Research and Development In 2013 the Ministry of Health data shows that the prevalence of cancer in North Sulawesi was 1.4%. If visits by interviews of all ages according to the doctor's diagnosis was 1.7% higher at Tomohon 0.5% respectively in North Minahasa Minahasa and 0.3% respectively, Manado, Sitaro, North Bolmong, Talaud, respectively Bolmong respectively 0.2%, Sangihe, Minahasa Tenggara, South Bolmong, Bitung respectively 0.1% and the lowest was 0.1% in the East Bolmong 0% (Balitbangkes, 2013).
If seen from the characteristics of cancer prevalence in North Sulawesi occurred since the age of 1 1 year (0.2%) and the older the increasing prevalence of up to 0.7% in those aged> 55 years is more prevalent in women (0.3%) the tendency is more prevalent in the group of farmer / fisherman / labor and does not work respectively 0.2% when viewed from urban or village there was no difference respectively 0.2% (Balitbangkes, 2013).
The general objective of this research is to make know the effectiveness of antioxidant intake on breast cancer patients in the case group in inhibiting the progression of breast cancer patients in the department of Prof. Dr. R.D. Kandou Manado.
The benefits of this research is to provide a general overview related to various types of breast cancer and antioxidant intake in breast cancer patients in the department of Prof. R.D.Kandou Manado.
This type of research is descriptive analytic observational study using case control design of the study will be conducted in the department of Prof. Dr. R.D. Kandou Manado in March s / d in October 2016. The population in this study are all breast cancer patients who come for treatment in the department of Prof. Dr. R.D. Kandou Manado both inpatient and outpatient. The sample in this study met the inclusion criteria include female cancer patients, following the completion of this study to be able to communicate well, willing and signed informed consen and Exclusion criteria ie if the subject in a state of critical illness loss of speech or garbled.
The sample size in this study a total of 106 samples were divided each 53 samples for the case group (Patients Ca Stage III and IV) and control (People Ca Stage I). The sample is determined by a formula based case-control studies Lemeshow et al., (1997),
Processing and data analysis begins with the editing, and coding of data to facilitate the data entry process is then followed by mengentri data the software program statistics, the next step is to conduct data analysis of univariate (characteristics and distribution of variable frequency) to determine the proportion / distribution and characteristics of the study subjects Results analysis and subsequent interpretation of data presented in tables, charts and discussions in accordance with the existing reality. To determine the effectiveness of the intake of antioxidants in inhibiting the progression of breast cancer patients, using a paired sample t-test.
The results showed that intake of antioxidants consumed namely Vitamin A, Vitamin C, and vitamin E. The average intake of antioxidants in the control group for vitamin A = 223.4 mcg, Vitamin C = 25.8 mg and vitamin E = 8.02 mg. The average intake of antioxidants in the case group = 218.6 mcg of vitamin A, Vitamin C = 29.11 mg and vitamin E = 8.28 mg.