EVALUASI TANDA DAN GEJALA PASIEN KANKER SETELAH MENJALANI KEMOTERAPI

RUMAH SAKIT IBNU SINA MAKASSAR 2016

  • Adriani Natalia M Sam Ratulangi university

Abstract

Abstrak

Kanker merupakan salah satu penyebab kematian utama di seluruh dunia.Kemoterapi merupakan salah satu pilihan terapi yang tersedia. Namun, kemoterapi memiliki agen sitotoksik yang bukan hanya menyerang sel kanker yang berproliferasi tetapi juga sel-sel yang normal yang akan mempengaruhi kemampuan fisik pasien.Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi tanda dan gejala pasien yang menjalani kemoterapi di Rumah Sakit Ibnu Sina Makassar 2016 yang meliputi nyeri, mual dan muntah dan hasil pemeriksaan laboratorium pada hematologi yaitu HGB, WBC dan PLT.Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian deskriftif eksploratif. Teknik pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan "purposive sampling" sebanyak 42 responden. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji Kruskall Wallis untuk hubungan siklus kemoterapi dengan nyeri, mual /muntah dan kelelahan serta uji Korelasi Spearman untuk korelasi siklus kemoterapi dengan profil hematologi (Hgb, WBC, dan PLT) dengan tingkat kepercayaan 95%. Semua data dianalisis dengan program SPSS versi 21,0 (SPSS, Inc Chicago, IL).Ada hubungan siklus kemoterapi dengan nyeri (p: 0.013), mual dan muntah (p:0.02), dan kelelahan (p:0.01). Selain itu, didapatkan ada korelasi siklus kemoterapi dengan kadar hemoglobin (p=0.026,r=-0.034), kadar PLT (p=0.050,r=-0.305), dan tidak ada korelasi siklus kemoterapi dengan WBC (p=0.889,r=0.022). Namun berdasarkan siklus kemoterapi berulang sebanyak dua kali tidak ditemukan perubahan yang berarti antara intensitas nyeri, grade mual/muntah, tingkat kelelahan, kadar, PLT dan WBC, kecuali kadar Hemoglobin dalam darah yang mengalami penurunan. Terjadi perubahan gejala (nyeri, mual dan muntah, kelelahan) dan perubahan status hematologi (Hb dan PLT) seiring dengan peningkatan siklus kemoterapi. Olehnya itu, diperlukan pemantauan dari perawat dan pihak terkait dalam penanganan pasien dengan kemoterapi.

Kata kunci: siklus kemoterapi, nyeri, mual/muntah, kelelahan, hemoglobin, WBC dan PLT.

Abstrak Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of the treatment options available. However, chemotherapy has a cytotoxic agent that is not only attacking the cancer cells poliferating but also normal cells that will affect the patient's physical abilities. This study aimed to evaluate the signs and symptoms of patients who are undergoing chemotherapy at Ibn Sina Hospital Makassar 2016 include pain, nausea and vomiting, and laboratory results in hematology, namely HGB, WBC and PLT.This study used a descriptive longitudinal research design. The sampling technique is done with the "purposive sampling" as many as 42 respondents. Data analysis was performed using Kruskal Wallis test for the relationship cycles of chemotherapy with pain, nausea / vomiting and fatigue as well as Spearman's correlation test cycles of chemotherapy with hematologic profile (Hgb, WBC, and PLT) with a 95% confidence level. All data were analyzed with SPSS version 21.0 (SPSS, Inc. Chicago, IL).There are correlation with the pain of chemotherapy cycles (p: 0.013), nausea and vomiting (p: 0.02), and fatigue (p: 0.01). In addition, it was found there was a correlation cycles of chemotherapy with hemoglobin levels (p = 0.026, r = -0034), PLT levels (p = 0.050, r = -0305), and no correlation with WBC cycles of chemotherapy (p = 0.889, r = 0022). However, based on repeated cycles of chemotherapy twice found no significant change between the intensity of pain, grade nausea / vomiting, fatigue, concentration, PLT and WBC, except hemoglobin levels in the blood decrease. There is a change of symptoms (pain, nausea and vomiting, fatigue) and hematologic status changes (Hemoglobin and PLT) along with increased cycles of chemotherapy. By him that would require monitoring of nurses and parties involved in the management of patients with chemotherapy.

Keywords: cycles of chemotherapy, pain, nausea / vomiting, fatigue, hemoglobin, WBC and PLT.

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Published
2021-01-05